We hope you are truly inspired by the below snippets from the research and physiology text books….And as Wim Hof says, “we wish health, strength and happiness to everybody.
Wim Hof Method Research and Information
In 2019- An investigation was carried out to see if WHM can modulate innate immune responses in patients with axial spondyloarthritis, a chronic rheumatic inflammation of the spine:
Results suggest that the WHM does not only enable healthy individuals to voluntarily initiate the immune response in acute inflammation but also in chronic inflammation related to immune-mediated inflammatory conditions.
An add-on training program involving breathing exercises, cold exposure, and meditation attenuates inflammation and disease activity in axial spondyloarthritis – A proof of concept trial. Authors: G. Buijze, M. de Jong, M. Kox, M. van de Sande, D. van Schaardenburg, R. van Vugt, C. Popa, P. Pickkers, D. Baeten – Amsterdam Medical Centre 2019
In 2018 a brain imaging study was conducted to measure the relative contributions of the brain and the periphery that endow the Iceman to withstand the cold using his Wim Hof Method techniques:
Our study provides an initial description of CNS processing during the practice of a technique that uses a combination of forced breathing and interoceptive focus that appears to allow a seasoned practitioner to withstand episodes of severe cold exposure. Results provide compelling evidence for the primacy of the brain (CNS) rather than the body (peripheral mechanisms) in mediating the Iceman’s responses to cold exposure.
Article: “Brain over body”–A study on the willful regulation of autonomic function during cold exposure
Authors: O. Muzik, K. Reilly, V. Diwadkar – Wayne State University School of Medicine. 2018
In this paper, a brain imaging study was conducted to measure the relative contributions of the brain and the periphery that endow the Iceman to withstand the cold using his Wim Hof Method techniques. The results provide compelling evidence for the primacy of the brain (CNS) rather than the body (peripheral mechanisms) in mediating the Iceman’s responses to cold exposure. They also suggest the compelling possibility that the WHM might allow practitioners to develop higher level of control over key components of the autonomous system, with implications for lifestyle interventions that might ameliorate multiple clinical syndromes.
Our study provides an initial description of CNS processing during the practice of a technique that uses a combination of forced breathing and interoceptive focus that appears to allow a seasoned practitioner to withstand episodes of severe cold exposure. Our findings unequivocally demonstrate the activation of autonomic brain areas that are implicated in stress-induced analgesia as well as cognitive cortical areas that are associated with self-reflection. The observed strong activation of the PAG might suggest the release of endogenous opiates/cannabinoids that mediate decreased sensitivity to cold exposure and promote a feeling of euphoria and well-being. Consequently, this technique might allow the practitioner to assert a higher level of control over key components of the brain’s autonomous system.
In 2016, taking a cold shower on a frequent basis was shown to help individuals feel more energy and improve their subjective perceptions of their own health.
A routine (hot-to-) cold shower resulted in a statistical reduction of self-reported sickness absence
The Effect of Cold Showering on Health and Work: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Geert A. Buijze, Inger N. Sierevelt, Bas C. J. M. van der Heijden, Marcel G. Dijkgraaf, Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical Center Slotervaart, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Risk Management, Achmea, Zeist, The Netherlands. linical Research Unit, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Department Coronel Institute of Occupational Health, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
This pragmatic randomized controlled trial is the first study showing that a routine cold shower has a beneficial effect on health. Repetitive cold showering can modulate the physiological response. Our findings show that routinely showering (hot-to-) cold for at least 30 days resulted in a reduction of self-reported sick leave from work but not illness days in adults without severe comorbidity. Further research using objective parameters is necessary to determine whether these were causal or associational findings. Considering the mild effect of a routine cold shower on hormonal and cytokine modulation, these alone are unlikely to play a significant role. Perhaps neuroimaging technologies such as functional MRI could be used to assess any potential neurobiologic immunostimulatory effect.
In 2015 the ability to voluntarily influence the physiological stress response was shown
This paper adds to a previous study, published in 2014, on the ability to voluntarily influence the physiological stress response in healthy men to experimentally induced inflammation, after WHM training.
Article: The Role of Outcome Expectancies for a Training Program Consisting of Meditation, Breathing Exercises, and Cold Exposure on the Response to Endotoxin Administration: a Proof-of-Principle Study
Authors: H. van Middendorp, M. Kox, P. Pickkers, A.W.M. Evers – Radboud University Medical Center. 2015
This paper adds to a previous study, published in 2014, on the ability to voluntarily influence the physiological stress response in healthy men to experimentally induced inflammation, after WHM training. It is a proof-of-principle study that investigated how one’s expectancies might play a role in treatment outcome. Indications were found that generalized outcome expectancy optimism is a potential determinant of the autonomic and immune response to induced inflammation after training.
In 2015 a study demonstrated a link between psychological mechanisms and immune responses.
This it is to our knowledge the first study to suggest that optimism contributes to an increased autonomic and repressed evoked immune response in a standardized and reproducible experimental inflammation model.
The role of outcome expectancies for a training program consisting of meditation, breathing exercises, and cold exposure on the response to endotoxin administration:
a proof-of-principle study. Henriët van Middendorp & Matthijs Kox & Peter Pickkers & Andrea W. M. Evers. Clin Rheumatol. DOI 10.1007/s10067-015-3009-8 . April 2015
This proof-of-principle study provides first indications for potential innovative treatments to change immune-modulating responses by means of psychological mechanisms. If replicated, these findings may be used for predicting training responses and potentiate their effects by means of optimism-inducing interventions in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic conditions.
In 2014 the effects of the WHM on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune responses were evaluated at Radboud University Medical Centre:
The sympathetic nervous system and immune system can indeed be voluntarily influenced. Compared to a control group who were not trained in the WHM, the trained group showed fewer flu-like symptoms, lower levels of proinflammatory mediators, and increased plasma epinephrine levels.
Article: Voluntary Activation of The Sympathetic Nervous System and Attenuation of the Innate Immune Response In Humans
Authors: M. Kox, P. Pickkers et al. – Radboud University Medical Center. 2014
In this paper, the effects of the WHM on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response are evaluated. A group of twelve people were trained in the WHM before undergoing an experiment to induce inflammation, normally resulting in flu- like symptoms. Compared to a control group who were not trained in the WHM, the trained group showed fewer flu-like symptoms, lower levels of proinflammatory mediators, and increased plasma epinephrine levels. In conclusion, the trained group was able to voluntarily activate the sympathetic nervous system.
Hitherto, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system were regarded as systems that cannot be voluntarily influenced. The present study demonstrates that, through practicing techniques learned in a short-term training program, the sympathetic nervous system and immune system can indeed be voluntarily influenced. Healthy volunteers practicing the learned techniques exhibited profound increases in the release of epinephrine, which in turn led to increased production of anti-inflammatory mediators and subsequent dampening of the proinflammatory cytokine response elicited by intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin. This study could have important implications for the treatment of a variety of conditions associated with excessive or persistent inflammation, especially autoimmune diseases in which therapies that antagonize proinflammatory cytokines have shown great benefit.
In 2014, in a group of 26 trekkers were reported to have “broken new medical ground” as they ascended Mt Kilimajaro in 48 hours.
During an expedition to Mt. Kilimanjaro a group of 26 trekkers who are trained in the WHM appeared to use the method to largely prevent, and as needed, reverse, symptoms of AMS.
Article: Controlled Hyperventilation After Training May Accelerate Altitude Acclimatization Authors: G. Buijze, M.T. Hopman. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine , 25, 484–494 (2014)
This report is written on the effects of the WHM on acute mountain sickness (AMS). During an expedition to Mt. Kilimanjaro a group of 26 trekkers who are trained in the WHM appeared to use the method to largely prevent, and as needed, reverse, symptoms of AMS.
In 2014 a study tested the effects of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold to brown adipose tissue (BAT) and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT).
WHM breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production.
Frequent Extreme Cold Exposure and Brown Fat and Cold-Induced Thermogenesis: A Study in a Monozygotic Twin. Authors: J. Vosselman, W.D. van Marken-Lichtenbeld – Maastricht University Medical Center. 2014
This study tested the effects of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold to brown adipose tissue (BAT) and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT). The experiment compared Wim Hof, who is used to extreme cold exposure moments, to his monozygotic twin brother who does not have a lifestyle with extreme cold exposures. Both use the WHM breathing technique. The results showed that no significant difference in BAT or CIT were found between the two subjects. However, Wim’s core temperature dropped less compared to his brother and his subjective response to the cold temperature was more positive. Furthermore, the body heat generated of both brothers is considerably higher than the average person. Thus, it seems that WHM breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production.
In 2012 during an 80-minute full body ice immersion and practicing the WHM concentration technique studies were carried out in relation to immune responses.
Results showed how the concentration techniques of the WHM seemed to evoke a controlled stress response.
The Influence of Concentration/meditation on Autonomic Nervous System Activity and the Innate Immune Response: A Case Study. Authors: M. Kox, M. Hopman, P. Pickkers. et al. – Radboud University Medical Center. 2012
After Wim Hof claimed he could influence his autonomic nervous system and thereby his innate immune response, this case-study research was conducted. His ex vivo cytokine response was measured during an 80-minute full body ice immersion and practicing the WHM concentration technique. In addition, an endotoxemia experiment was conducted to study Wim’s in vivo innate immune response. The results showed how the concentration techniques of the WHM seemed to evoke a controlled stress response. This response is characterized by sympathetic nervous system activation, which seems to attenuate the innate immune system. Here, Wim Hof proved he was able to influence his autonomic nervous system.
In conclusion, this particular individual’s concentration/ meditation technique seems to result in a consciously controlled stress response, characterized by sympathetic nervous system activation and subsequent catecholamine/cortisol release. This response seems to attenuate the innate immune response.
Buteyko Institute Method Research and Information
Those practising Buteyko breathing techniques reduced hyperventilation and their use of reliever medications (beta2 agonists ) and preventers (inhaled steroids). Participants in the Buteyko group showed improved scores for Quality of Life whilst the Control group saw no significant improvements in either hyperventilation, medication usage or Quality of Life.
Buteyko Breathing Techniques in Asthma: A Blinded Randomised Trial. Simon D Bowler, Amanda Green and Charles A Mitchell. Medical Journal of Australia 1998; 169:575-578.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of Buteyko breathing techniques in the management of asthma. Design: Prospective, blinded, randomised study comparing the effect of Buteyko breathing techniques with control classes in 39 people with asthma. The study was conducted from January 1995 to April 1995. Participants: Subjects recruited from the community, aged 12 to 70 years, with asthma and substantial medication usage. Results after applying Buteyko techniques for twelve weeks: Reliever usage – median reduction of 96% (from daily median of 943ug to 39ug). Preventer usage – median reduction of 49% (from daily median 1500ug to 765ug). Minute Volume – median reduction of 4.6L/min (from 14 L/min to 9.6 L/min). The relative reduction in reliever medication use in the Buteyko group was related to the proportionate reduction in minute volume. (r=0.51; P=0.04). Results after applying placebo breathing techniques – Control group: Reliever usage – median reduction of 5% (from daily median of 843ug to 801ug). Preventer usage – no median reduction. Minute Volume – median reduction of 0.9L/min (from 14.2 L/min to 13.3 L/min).
Conclusion: Those practising Buteyko breathing techniques reduced hyperventilation and their use of reliever medications (beta2 agonists ) and preventers (inhaled steroids).
Participants in the Buteyko group showed improved scores for Quality of Life whilst the Control group saw no significant improvements in either hyperventilation, medication usage or Quality of Life.
Buteyko Breathing Technique (BBT) is a safe and efficacious asthma management technique. BBT has clinical and potential pharmaco-economic benefits that merit further study.
Buteyko Breathing Techniques for Asthma: An Effective Intervention. Source: Patrick McHugh, Fergus Aitcheson, Bruce Duncan, Frank Houghton Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 12 December 2003, vol 116 No 1187.
Abstract: Aim To assess the impact of the Buteyko Breathing Technique (BBT) on medication use in asthma. Methods: A blinded randomised controlled trial comparing BBT with control was conducted in 38 people with asthma aged between 18 and 70. Participants were followed for six months following the intervention. Medication use and indices of ventilatory function were recorded.. Results: No significant change in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) was recorded in either group. The BBT group exhibited a reduction in inhaled steroid use of 50% and ß2-agonist use of 85% at six months from baseline. In the control group inhaled steroid use was unchanged and ß2-agonist use was reduced by 37% from baseline. Investigator contact between the two groups was equal. There were no adverse events recorded in either group. Conclusions: BBT is a safe and efficacious asthma management technique. BBT has clinical and potential pharmaco-economic benefits that merit further study.
The participants involved in this study all experienced significant improvement in asthma with a reduction in symptom, medication and improvement in quality of life.
Health Education: Does the Buteyko Institute Method Make a Difference? Source: Jill McGowan, Education and training consultant in Asthma Management. Thorax vol 58, suppl iii, page 28, December 2003.
Background: Anecdotal evidence suggests that the Buteyko Institute Method of Breathing Retraining can reduce asthma symptoms, medication and improve quality of life. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of this method for individuals being treated for asthma. Methods: 600 adult patients aged 18-69 years diagnosed and currently treated asthma with a symptom score > 1 per day was recruited to a randomized blinded controlled trial. This tested active Buteyko (Group 1) with asthma nurse education (Group 2) and continued medication control (Group 3). The main outcome measures were quality of life (SF36), activity, asthma symptoms, and medication reduction. Asthma symptoms and activity were measured by diary card scoring from 0-3. Results: of all who commenced study, data were available on 500 after 6 months, 384 after 12 months, and 384 after 24 months. Asthma Symptoms: Buteyko Group – decreased by 98%, 6 months and remained same at 12 months – Placebo and Control Groups – no significant change. Reliever Medication: Buteyko Group – decreased by 98%, 6 months, and remained same at 12 months – Placebo and Control Groups – no significant change. Preventer Medication: Buteyko Group – decreased by 92%, 6 months and remained same 12 months – Placebo and Control Groups – no significant change. Reliever Oral Preparations: Buteyko Group – decreased by 100%, 6 months and remained same at 12 months – Placebo and Control Groups – no significant change. Preventer Oral Preparations: Buteyko Group – decreased by 96%, 6 months and remained same at 12 months – Placebo and Control Groups – no significant change. Instance of cold or viral infection: Buteyko Group – decreased by 20%, 6 months and remained same at 12 months – Placebo and Control Groups – no significant change. The participants involved in this study all experienced significant improvement in asthma with a reduction in symptom, medication and improvement in quality of life. This was maintained over the duration of the study and is similar to the results of Brisbane Study (Bowler S 1998 BMU) and unpublished study by Dr G Spence G.P. in Shettleston Health Centre (Spence. G.).
The subjects in the Buteyko group were able to significantly reduce their daily doses of inhaled corticosteroid.
A randomised controlled trial of the Buteyko technique as an adjunct to conventional management of asthma. Robert L. Cowie, Diane P. Conley, Margot F. Underwood, Patricia G. Reader. Respiratory Medicine May 2008 (Vol. 102, Issue 5, Pages 726-732).
One hundred and twenty nine adults 18-50 years of age with asthma were randomised, 65 to the Buteyko group and 64 to the control group. The control group was trained by a physiotherapist in breathing and relaxation techniques. One hundred and nineteen of the participants were followed up at six months.
‘This randomised clinical trial showed that both the Buteyko and control (physiotherapy) interventions produced a favourable outcome in that over 70% of the participants enjoyed asthma control 6 months after completing the intervention. In addition, the subjects in the Buteyko group were able to significantly reduce their daily doses of inhaled corticosteroid.’
Breathing training, which was available through pulmonary rehabilitation clinics, could often help patients understand and cope better with the symptoms of both conditions, he said.
Study Explains Success of Buteyko. Source: Australian Doctor, 11 May 2001 by Megan Howe
A study showing more than one quarter of asthmatics have symptoms of dysfunctional breathing might explain the anecdotal success of the Buteyko method in treating asthma, researchers say. The UK study found many people diagnosed with asthma might benefit from breathing retraining. Researchers asked 219 patients with asthma to complete a questionnaire assessing 16 symptoms associated with abnormal breathing, such as fast or deep breathing, shortness of breath, tingling in fingers and hands, and anxiety. One-third of women and one-fifth of men had a complex of abnormal breathing symptoms suggestive of hyperventilation syndrome or dysfunctional breathing, according to the findings in the BMJ (5 May). “There may be an important unrecognised diagnostic overlap between asthma and dysfunctional breathing,” the researchers wrote. The study found many patients might be experiencing avoidable morbidity because of inappropriate diagnosis and ineffective treatment. And it suggested the findings might explain the reported success of the Buteyko method, which claims to treat asthma by retraining the breathing pattern to correct hyperventilation. Associate Professor John Wilson, director of the Australian National Asthma Campaign, said it was difficult to screen patients for dysfunctional breathing and it may be misdiagnosed as asthma. Professor Wilson, from the department of respiratory medicine at Alfred Hospital in Melbourne, said asthma should not be diagnosed by history and physical examination alone. The best diagnostic tools were objective assessments of airflow, such as spirometry or peak expiratory flow rate, where there was a change of at least 15% in PEFR before and after exercise. However, there was likely to be significant crossover between asthma and dysfunctional breathing. Breathing training, which was available through pulmonary rehabilitation clinics, could often help patients understand and cope better with the symptoms of both conditions, he said.
Other Related Research
Studies indicate that these practices (Mind-Body Interventions) are associated with a downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B pathway; this is the opposite of the effects of chronic stress on gene expression and suggests that MBI practices may lead to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases.
Article: What Is the Molecular Signature of Mind–Body Interventions? A Systematic Review of Gene Expression Changes Induced by Meditation and Related Practices (2017). Authors: I. Buric, M. Farias, J. Jong, C. Mee, and I. A. Brazil – Coventry University. 2017
There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of mind-body interventions (MBIs) in improving mental and physical health, but the molecular mechanisms of these benefits remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that MBIs reverse expression of genes involved in inflammatory reactions that are induced by stress. This systematic review was conducted to examine changes in gene expression that occur after MBIs and to explore how these molecular changes are related to health….. Overall, the studies indicate that these practices are associated with a downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B pathway; this is the opposite of the effects of chronic stress on gene expression and suggests that MBI practices may lead to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases. However, it is unclear how the effects of MBIs compare to other healthy interventions such as exercise or nutrition due to the small number of available studies. More research is required to be able to understand the effects of MBIs at the molecular level.
Brief interventions aimed at raising PCO2 or slowing respiratory rate provide significant, sustained, and clinically meaningful improvements in asthma control. Raising PCO2 was associated with greater benefits in aspects of lung function and long-term symptoms.
Controlling Asthma by Training of Capnometry-Assisted Hypoventilation (CATCH) Versus Slow Breathing: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Ritz T, Rosenfield D, Steele AM, Millard MM, Meuret AE.
Background: Hyperventilation has been associated with adverse effects on lung function, symptoms, and well-being in asthma. We examined whether raising end- tidal carbon-dioxide levels (PCO2), compared to slow breathing, was associated with improvements in asthma control, including peak-flow variability. Method:120 asthma patients were randomly assigned to capnometry-assisted respiratory training (CART) for raising PCO2 or slowing respiratory rate (SLOW). Patients received five weekly sessions and completed twice-daily homework exercises over 4 weeks. Blinded assessments at baseline, posttreatment, 1-month and 6-months follow-up of asthma control, PCO2, and diurnal peak-flow variability were primary outcome measures. Additionally, we measured pulmonary function (spirometry, forced oscillation, exhaled nitric oxide, methacholine challenge), symptoms, quality of life, and bronchodilator use. Because the control group received an active treatment, we expected improvements in asthma control in both groups, but more pronounced benefits from CART. Results: Improvements were seen in 17 of 21 clinical indices (81.0%) in both interventions, including the primary outcome variables asthma control (d=.81), peak-flow variability (d=.54), quality of life, bronchodilator use, lung function, and airway hyperreactivity. Most improvements were sustained across 6-month follow-up. Compared with slow breathing, CART showed greater increases in PCO2 (CART: d=1.45 vs. SLOW: d=.64) and greater reductions in respiratory impedance during treatment, less distress during methacholine challenge, and greater reduction in asthma symptoms at follow-up (Ps<.05). Conclusions: Brief interventions aimed at raising PCO2 or slowing respiratory rate provide significant, sustained, and clinically meaningful improvements in asthma control. Raising PCO2 was associated with greater benefits in aspects of lung function and long-term symptoms.
Results from this study provide the first evidence of a unique regula- tory mechanism by which CO2 inhibits mast cell degranulation and histamine release by repressing stimulated increases in intracellular calcium. Thus, our data provide a plausible explanation for the reported therapeutic benefit of non-inhaled intranasal delivery of 100% CO2 to treat allergic rhinitis.
Treatment of mast cells with carbon dioxide suppresses degranulation via a novel mechanism involving repression of increased intracellular calcium levels. J. W. Strider, C. G. Masterson & P. L. Durham Center for Biomedical & Life Sciences, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USA.
Background: Intranasal non-inhaled delivery of carbon dioxide (CO2) is efficacious in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. The goal of this study was to determine whether and how 100% CO2 inhibits mast cell degranulation, thereby possibly contributing to the reduction of symptoms in seasonal allergic rhinitis. Methods: Peritoneal mast cells isolated from rats and labelled with sulforhodamine-B (SFRM-B) were used to determine whether CO2 treatment could block mast cell degranulation and histamine release in response to 48/80. In addition, the effect of CO2 on intracellular calcium levels in unstimulated and stimulated mast cells was determined by fluorescent microscopy.
Results: Treatment with 48/80 caused >90% of mast cells containing SFRM-B to degranulate, resulting in a marked decrease in the fluorescent intensity within the mast cells, and simultaneously causing a significant increase in histamine release. Significantly, the stimulatory effect of 48/80 on fluorescent intensity and histamine levels was greatly inhibited (>95%) to near control levels by pre-treatment with 100% CO2. Treatment with 48/80 also caused a robust transient increase in intracellular calcium, whereas pre-treatment with CO2 repressed the increase in calcium (>70%) in response to 48/80.
Conclusions: Results from this study provide the first evidence of a unique regulatory mechanism by which CO2 inhibits mast cell degranulation and histamine release by repressing stimulated increases in intracellular calcium. Thus, our data provide a plausible explanation for the reported therapeutic benefit of non-inhaled intranasal delivery of 100% CO2 to treat allergic rhinitis.
Loop gain of the ventilatory control system during sleep can be estimated using breath-hold testing in the daytime. Thus, physiological breath-hold testing may have clinical utility for phenotyping patients with OSA.
Breath-holding as a means to estimate the loop gain contribution to obstructive sleep apnoea .J Physiol 596.17 (2018) pp 4043–4056 4043. Ludovico Messineo , Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Ali Azarbarzin, Melania D. Oliveira Marques, Nicole Calianese, David P. White, Andrew Wellman and Scott A. Sands.
A hypersensitive ventilatory control system or elevated “loop gain” during sleep is a primary phenotypic trait causing obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Despite the multitude of methods available to assess the anatomical contributions to OSA during wakefulness in the clinical setting (e.g. neck circumference, pharyngometry, Mallampati score), it is currently not possible to recognize elevated loop gain in patients in this context. Loop gain during sleep can now be recognized using simplified testing during wakefulness, specifically in the form of a reduced maximal breath-hold duration, or a larger ventilatory response to voluntary 20-second breath-holds. We consider that easy breath-holding manoeuvres will enable daytime recognition of a high loop gain in OSA for more personalized intervention. Abstract Increased “loop gain” of the ventilatory control system promotes obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in some patients and offers an avenue for more personalized treatment, yet diagnostic tools for directly measuring loop gain in the clinical setting are lacking. Here we test the hypothesis that elevated loop gain during sleep can be recognized using voluntary breath-hold manoeuvres during wakefulness. Twenty individuals (10 OSA, 10 controls) participated in a single overnight study with voluntary breath-holding manoeuvres performed during wakefulness. We assessed (1) maximal breath-hold duration, and (2) the ventilatory response to 20 s breath-holds.
Research and Articles
At Breathe Health Retreats we are not just about going out there and claiming to have fun and get healthy. Everything we do is backed up by hard science, or at the very least, eye opening documentaries to help stimulate your curiosity.
For those who like to read the research, please enjoy the below downloadable papers, links and articles, and also see the articles in our Breathe Blog